ISSN 2146-8346
 

Original Research 


Demographic trends in ADHD diagnosis in U.S. children using NHANES data between 2004 and 2012

Dina Hani Zamil, Xin Wang, Aisha Vadhariya, Hua Chen.

Abstract
Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common mental disorder in the pediatric population and affects education, finances, and medication. ADHD diagnostic criteria and resultant prevalence rates are also of special interest to the global psychiatric community. ADHD diagnosis rates and the corresponding demographic distributions through different years are thus an issue of great public health concern and debate. The objective of this study is to characterize changes in the demographic distribution of ADHD diagnosis from 2004 to 2012 in the United States.
Methods: ADHD diagnosis data was extracted from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Children, a source of nationally representative data on children in the United States. The ADHD cases were identified based on ICD9-CM diagnosis codes. Chi square tests were used to investigate differences in ADHD diagnosis rates by demographic characteristics (age, race, and gender) within each year and simple linear regression was applied to determine the extent of change over time.
Results: The ADHD diagnosis rate was higher among males, Whites, and school aged children and adolescents (vs. preschoolers aged 3-4) in each year examined. The total number of ADHD cases as well as all demographic groups with the exception of African Americans and preschoolers aged 3-4 exhibited an increasing trend between 2004 and 2012
Conclusions: ADHD diagnosis among youth showed a significant increase in the U.S. between 2004 and 2012. Notable increases and group differences were also observed among demographic subgroups. These findings indicate a need for future research in reasons for such group differences as well as treatment differences.

Key words: ADHD, demographic trends, NHANES


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Dina Hani Zamil
Articles by Xin Wang
Articles by Aisha Vadhariya
Articles by Hua Chen
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 808
Downloaded: 200
Cited: 0

How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Zamil DH, Wang X, Vadhariya A, Chen H. Demographic trends in ADHD diagnosis in U.S. children using NHANES data between 2004 and 2012. J Behav Health. 2017; 6(3): 136-142. doi:10.5455/jbh.20170418105540


Web Style

Zamil DH, Wang X, Vadhariya A, Chen H. Demographic trends in ADHD diagnosis in U.S. children using NHANES data between 2004 and 2012. http://www.jbehavioralhealth.com/?mno=255845 [Access: October 18, 2018]. doi:10.5455/jbh.20170418105540


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Zamil DH, Wang X, Vadhariya A, Chen H. Demographic trends in ADHD diagnosis in U.S. children using NHANES data between 2004 and 2012. J Behav Health. 2017; 6(3): 136-142. doi:10.5455/jbh.20170418105540



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Zamil DH, Wang X, Vadhariya A, Chen H. Demographic trends in ADHD diagnosis in U.S. children using NHANES data between 2004 and 2012. J Behav Health. (2017), [cited October 18, 2018]; 6(3): 136-142. doi:10.5455/jbh.20170418105540



Harvard Style

Zamil, D. H., Wang, X., Vadhariya, A. & Chen, H. (2017) Demographic trends in ADHD diagnosis in U.S. children using NHANES data between 2004 and 2012. J Behav Health, 6 (3), 136-142. doi:10.5455/jbh.20170418105540



Turabian Style

Zamil, Dina Hani, Xin Wang, Aisha Vadhariya, and Hua Chen. 2017. Demographic trends in ADHD diagnosis in U.S. children using NHANES data between 2004 and 2012. Journal of Behavioral Health, 6 (3), 136-142. doi:10.5455/jbh.20170418105540



Chicago Style

Zamil, Dina Hani, Xin Wang, Aisha Vadhariya, and Hua Chen. "Demographic trends in ADHD diagnosis in U.S. children using NHANES data between 2004 and 2012." Journal of Behavioral Health 6 (2017), 136-142. doi:10.5455/jbh.20170418105540



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Zamil, Dina Hani, Xin Wang, Aisha Vadhariya, and Hua Chen. "Demographic trends in ADHD diagnosis in U.S. children using NHANES data between 2004 and 2012." Journal of Behavioral Health 6.3 (2017), 136-142. Print. doi:10.5455/jbh.20170418105540



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Zamil, D. H., Wang, X., Vadhariya, A. & Chen, H. (2017) Demographic trends in ADHD diagnosis in U.S. children using NHANES data between 2004 and 2012. Journal of Behavioral Health, 6 (3), 136-142. doi:10.5455/jbh.20170418105540





Most Viewed Articles
  • Factors contributing to the increase in HIV and STD transmission among African American young adults in Mississippi
    Shemeka Hamlin-Palmer, Clifton C Addison, Brenda W. Campbell Jenkins
    J Behav Health. 2012; 1(2): 118-126
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20120328011808

  • Hypertensive patients: knowledge, Self-care management practices and challenges
    Verna Eugene, Paul Andrew Bourne
    J Behav Health. 2013; 2(3): 259-268
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20130217103511

  • "Olanzapine induced hypothermia: a rare case report"
    Javed Ather Siddiqui, Shazia Farheen Qureshi, Abdullah Al Zahrani
    J Behav Health. 2016; 5(4): 191-193
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20160727120938

  • Trichobezoar due to psychiatric co-morbidity: A rare case report
    Javed Ather Siddiqi, Ali Mahmoud El Daous, Yousef Bin Ahmed Shawosh
    J Behav Health. 2017; 6(1): 70-72
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20160924112736

  • Mindfulness and Addictive Behaviors
    Marcello Spinella, Sara Martino, Christine Ferri
    J Behav Health. 2013; 2(1): 1-7
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20120908033138

  • Role of piracetam in treatment of cerebral palsy disease
    Marwa O. Elgendy, Sadia A. Tayel, Mohamed E.A. Abdelrahim, Ahmed M.A. Ali, Mohamed H. Meabed
    J Behav Health. 2012; 1(1): 53-58
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20120229090811

  • Feminist Identity and the Superwoman Ideal
    Sara M Martino, Shaelene R Lauriano
    J Behav Health. 2013; 2(2): 167-172
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20130224082826

  • The relevance of staff performance evaluation in a pre - existing nursing environment: Everything is New to Everyone
    Hamidah Hassan, Ruth Packiavathy Rajen Durai, Maziah Marzuki, Santhna Letchimi Panduragan, Samsiah Mat
    J Behav Health. 2013; 2(1): 87-93
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20120621074822

  • Energy Balance and the association between energy expenditure and dietary intake
    Clemens Drenowatz
    J Behav Health. 2012; 1(4): 315-321
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20120726015600

  • Knowledge, awareness and perception of female students of Emergency contraceptive pills
    Vijender Kumar Agrawal, Pooja Agrawal
    J Behav Health. 2013; 2(3): 230-235
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20130702055839

  • Most Downloaded
  • "Olanzapine induced hypothermia: a rare case report"
    Javed Ather Siddiqui, Shazia Farheen Qureshi, Abdullah Al Zahrani
    J Behav Health. 2016; 5(4): 191-193
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20160727120938

  • Trichobezoar due to psychiatric co-morbidity: A rare case report
    Javed Ather Siddiqi, Ali Mahmoud El Daous, Yousef Bin Ahmed Shawosh
    J Behav Health. 2017; 6(1): 70-72
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20160924112736

  • Internet Gaming Disorder: A Case Report.
    Javed Ather Siddiqui, Shazia Farheen Qureshi, Abdul Khaliq Alghamdi
    J Behav Health. 2018; 7(1): 41-44
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20170928054951

  • Psychiatric aspects of pain disorder and its management.
    Shazia Farhee Qureshi, Javed Ather Siddiqui, Abdullah Al Zahrani
    J Behav Health. 2017; 6(3): 143-145
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20170123102818

  • Hypertensive patients: knowledge, Self-care management practices and challenges
    Verna Eugene, Paul Andrew Bourne
    J Behav Health. 2013; 2(3): 259-268
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20130217103511

  • Hot, sweaty, and satisfied: Effects of Bikram yoga on psychological well-being
    Allison A. Rissell, Brian K. Miller, Lisa K. Lloyd, James S. Williams
    J Behav Health. 2014; 3(1): 71-76
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20131231051431

  • Role of piracetam in treatment of cerebral palsy disease
    Marwa O. Elgendy, Sadia A. Tayel, Mohamed E.A. Abdelrahim, Ahmed M.A. Ali, Mohamed H. Meabed
    J Behav Health. 2012; 1(1): 53-58
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20120229090811

  • Mindfulness and Addictive Behaviors
    Marcello Spinella, Sara Martino, Christine Ferri
    J Behav Health. 2013; 2(1): 1-7
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20120908033138

  • Factors contributing to the increase in HIV and STD transmission among African American young adults in Mississippi
    Shemeka Hamlin-Palmer, Clifton C Addison, Brenda W. Campbell Jenkins
    J Behav Health. 2012; 1(2): 118-126
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20120328011808

  • Feminist Identity and the Superwoman Ideal
    Sara M Martino, Shaelene R Lauriano
    J Behav Health. 2013; 2(2): 167-172
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20130224082826

  • Most Cited Articles
  • What is lacking in patient-physician communication: Perspectives from Asian American breast cancer patients and oncologists
    Sunmin Lee, Lu Chen, Grace X Ma, Carolyn Y Fang
    J Behav Health. 2012; 1(2): 102-109
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20120403024919
    Cited : 11 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Suicide in Bangladesh: a Mini Review
    S.M. Yasir Arafat
    J Behav Health. 2017; 6(1): 66-69
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20160904090206
    Cited : 9 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Self-Rated Health and Association with ACEs
    Roberta Waite, Maureen Davey, Laura Lynch
    J Behav Health. 2013; 2(3): 197-205
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20130317033246
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Association between physical activity behavior and sleep-related parameters of Adolescents
    Paul D. Loprinzi, Kevin E. Finn, Susan A. Harrington, Hyo Lee, Michael W. Beets, Bradley J. Cardinal
    J Behav Health. 2012; 1(4): 286-293
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20120725113528
    Cited : 7 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • The Association of Changes in Sedentary Behavior on Changes in Depression Symptomology: Pilot Study
    Paul D. Loprinzi, Eveleen Sng
    J Behav Health. 2016; 5(3): 140-144
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20160310105222
    Cited : 7 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Interference in the alcohol Stroop task with college student binge drinkers
    Kevin A Hallgren, Barbara S McCrady
    J Behav Health. 2013; 2(2): 112-119
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20130224082728
    Cited : 7 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Perception of nut intake among individuals with or at risk for heart disease and/or diabetes
    Roman Pawlak, Hilary London, Sarah Colby , Elizabeth Wall-Bassett , Natalia Sira
    J Behav Health. 2012; 1(3): 185-188
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20120501060143
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Psychosocial factors associated with recent Alcohol use among Youth
    Keith King, Rebecca Vidourek, Mary Haag, Ashley Merianos
    J Behav Health. 2012; 1(4): 231-242
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20120801024224
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Associations between anthropometric and sleep parameters among adolescents: considerations by gender
    Paul D. Loprinzi, Laura C. Stigler, Kathy K. Hager
    J Behav Health. 2013; 2(3): 236-242
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20130703061438
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Parent Involvement and Neurocognitive Functioning in Childhood Cancer Survivors
    Sunita K Patel, Beth Baumeister Peters, Terece Bell, Julie Verner, Ernest R Katz, Mary N Baron, J Galen Buckwalter
    J Behav Health. 2014; 3(1): 43-52
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/jbh.20131222084318
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]