Beliefs in various smoking cessation interventions among Jordanian adult smokers
Susan Abughosh, Feras Hawari, Ekere James Essien, Ronald J Peters, I-Hsuan Wu
Background/Objectives: To examine smokers’ beliefs in potential effectiveness of available smoking cessation interventions in Jordan. Methods: A cross-sectional survey-based study in a convenient sample of willing adults in Amman, Jordan (n=600) from 07/2009 to 07/2010. Participants who reported using a cigarette or a waterpipe to smoke tobacco in the past 30 days were considered current smokers and included in further analysis. Cigarette and waterpipe smoking were being analyzed separately with two outcomes for each smoking behavior: 1) believing smoking cessation medications are helpful in quitting vs. not, and 2) believing educational programs/counseling by healthcare providers are helpful vs. not. Multivarite logistic regression was used to determine participant characteristics associated with the defined outcomes. Results: More smokers believed in the effectiveness of educational program as compared to the medications. Cigarette smokers who find it hard to abstain from smoking where they are not allowed to were more likely to believe cessation medications are helpful (OR=1.79, 95%CI= 1.01–3.15). Cigarette smokers with a lower education level (OR=0.33, 95%CI= 0.14– 0.78), with a father who smokes (OR=0.39, 95%CI= 0.21–0.75), or who tried cigar smoking in the past month (OR=0.39, 95%CI= 0.18–0.86) were less likely to think educational programs are helpful. Waterpipe smokers who were older were less likely to believe cessation medications (OR=0.41, 95%CI= 0.17–0.99) and educational programs (OR=0.38, 95%CI= 0.18–0.80) are useful. Males (OR=6.07, 95%CI= 1.82–20.26) were more likely to believe cessation medications are helpful. Waterpipe smokers who have used cigar before (OR=0.16, 95%CI= 0.05–0.51) were less likes to perceive the effectiveness of medication. On the other hand, whose father is also a waterpipe smoker (OR=0.39, 95%CI= 0.17–0.89) was less likely to believe in educational programs. Conclusions: Understanding these opinions from a smoker’s perspective is important in designing culturally appropriate interventions to help smokers quit.