Some anthropometric risk factors of cardiovascular disease in Oravian adults (Central Slovakia): gender and age differences
Background: Slovaks are known to be a population at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: The aim of the study was description of gender and age differences in relation to anthropometric CVD risk factors among Oravian adults. Participants: The study population consisted of 100 participants (50 males and 50 females) representing three age groups: 49% young adults (18-35 yrs), 30% middle-aged adults (36-59 yrs) and 21% of elderly adults (60-80 yrs) from the central-Slovakian region of Orava. Methods: Anthropometric measurements, including weight, height (for BMI), waist and hip circumference (WHR), triceps and subscapular skinfold were used to calculate percentage body fat (BF). Measured blood pressure (BP) was used to classify for hypertension. Results: The males (in comparison with the females) had higher means of BMI (25.58±3.51 kg/m2), WHR (0.91±0.07), sBP (145±16.57 mmHg) and dBP (87.5±13.67 mmHg), higher prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension (50%), cigarette smoking (36%), and lower levels of physical fitness (64%) and education and socioeconomic status (18%). The highest means of BF (32.5± 3.50%) and BMI (28.95±4.98 kg/m2) were recorded in elderly females (6% of them were morbidly obese), who had the greatest prevalence of high-risk WHR (75%) and body fat (87.5%). The highest means of WHR (0.96±0.08) and sBP (153.85 ±14.6 mmHg) were determined in elderly males. 14.3% of the eldery participants were obese and 9.5% morbidly obese and 50% the middle-aged men showed the highest prevalence of hypertension II., and 53.8% of the eldery men showed the highest prevalence of hypertension I. Significant gender differences were found in WHR, BF, sBP (p<0.001), BF, BMI (p=0.04) and significant age differences were shown in sBP and BMI (p=0.001), WHR and obesity (p<0.001), dBP (p<0.02) and BMI (p=0.04). We found the strongliest relation BMI and BF in the elder group (r=0.793**) and relation WHR and BMI in males (r=0.551**). A significant correlation between CVD family history and high-risk BF (p=0.006) was determined in males and a significant correlation between cigarette smoking and high-risk BF (p=0.04) in females. We also detected statistically significant association of education and age (p<0.001), especially in females. Conclusion: The results of the study emphasize the need for comprehensive prevention of CVD risk factors among Oravian adults.