Hot, sweaty, and satisfied: Effects of Bikram yoga on psychological well-being
Allison A. Rissell, Brian K. Miller, Lisa K. Lloyd, James S. Williams
Background: Bikram yoga is sometimes referred to as hot yoga and a typical class is 90- minutes in duration, consists of 26 Hatha yoga postures and 2 breathing exercises, and is performed in a room heated to 41°C (105° F) with 40% humidity. This study examined the effects of Bikram yoga on two aspects of psychological well-being: core self-evaluation (CSE) and life satisfaction. Core self-evaluation is sometimes referred to as positive self-concept and is comprised of aspects of self-esteem, self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability. Life satisfaction is a holistic appraisal of one’s life in which a comparison is made of one’s current circumstances to what is thought to be an appropriate internally determined personal standard. Methods: Twenty-two subjects completed a 60-day Bikram yoga challenge. Selfreport survey responses were gathered before and immediately after the challenge. A withinsubjects one group pretest-posttest experimental design was used. Results: Bonferroni-adjusted t-tests for change over time in CSE and life satisfaction were both statistically significant. Cohen’s d statistic as a measure of effect size was .53 for core-self-evaluation and .40 for life satisfaction. Conclusions: Life satisfaction and CSE each improved over the course of the intervention. It is likely that the well-known effects of participating in intense physical exercise also contributed to improvements in psychological well-being.