Journal of Behavioral Health and Psychology. 2024; 13(1):(339-346)


Psychiatric Co-Morbidities of Epilepsy in the University Hospitals of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Djingri Labodi LOMPO, Julie Adeline KYELEM, Alassane ZOUNGRANA, Fabienne KERE, Christian NAPON, Athanase MILLOGO.

Abstract
Introduction: Psychiatric co-morbidities in epilepsy are dominated by depression, anxiety disorders and psychotic disorders. They have a negative impact on epilepsy, particularly in terms of increased psychological suffering, impaired quality of life and reduced seizure control. This study was carried out at the Ouagadougou university hospitals, Burkina Faso, with the aim of contributing to better management of patients with epilepsy. Its objectives were to describe the psychiatric co-morbidities of epilepsy and to identify the associated factors.

Patients and Methods: Prospective, descriptive and analytical, multicentre, hospital-based, cross-sectional study, which took place in the Ouagadougou University Hospitals, from 10/07/2021 to 15/12/2021, and involved patients undergoing outpatient treatment for epilepsy. The diagnosis of depressive syndrome was established using the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDIE) scale and that of generalized anxiety disorder using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder -7 (GAD-7) scale. The diagnosis of psychotic disorder was established by psychiatric expertise. The characteristics of patients with epilepsy and the frequency and characteristics of psychiatric comorbidities were analyzed. A bivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with the risk of depressive syndrome or generalized anxiety disorder, using EPI INFO 7.1.10 software. The value of p≤ 0.05 was retained. 

Results: One hundred and eleven (111) patients were included in this study, 64 of whom were men (57.7%). The mean age of the patients was 36.9+/-13 years with a mean age of onset of the first seizures of 29+/- 14.8 years. Epilepsy was focal in 56.8%. A high risk of generalized anxiety disorder was detected in 44/111 patients, i.e. 39.6%; an anxiety syndrome was confirmed in 18 patients after psychiatric expertise, i.e. 16.2%; no factors associated with anxiety disorders were identified. A high risk of a major depressive episode was detected in 41/111 patients, i.e. 36.9%; a major depressive syndrome was diagnosed in 25 patients after psychiatric expertise, i.e. 22.5%. Epilepsy with focal neurological signs was significantly associated with a risk of major depressive disorder (p=0.012).

Conclusion: Depression, anxiety and chronic psychosis are frequent psychiatric comorbidities of epilepsy in our context, hence the importance of integrated neuropsychiatric management.

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